Lining can be performed by means of two operational procedures:

1. Lining with sheets of fluoroplast-4 welded to shell and beaded to shell flanges, with shell height ranging from 1.0 to 1.3 m, shell diameter not exceeding 3 m and their quantity not being limited. Bottoms and covers can be flat or conical in shape with cone height not exceeding 150 mm. The lining of connecting pieces and manholes is welded to the main shell or to cover and shell lining. The maximum operating temperature of lined apparatuses is up to 220 °C (Fig. 1). In case of operation in vacuum conditions, it is necessary to apply higher vacuum under the lining which demands special equipment.

2. Rotational lining. This method of lining enables applying continuous lining on cylinder shells, bottoms, covers, connecting pieces and manholes (see Fig. 2) or lining covers and bottoms equipped with connecting pieces and manholes, cylinder shells equipped with connecting pieces and manholes separately (see Fig. 3). The maximum dimensions of cylinder shells are: Ø 2300 mm, H = 1500 mm or Ø 1600 mm, H = 2000 mm. The number of connecting pieces and manholes is not limited due to lining.

Rotationally lined articles can be operated in vacuum conditions, up to 15 mm Hg, and in case of use of a heating or a cooling jacket just due to good adhesion to armour material. The maximum service temperature of rotational lining is 150°C.

Using this technology, liners for baths and tanks can be manufactured as well.

This process also enables lining of pipeline fittings and entire pipeline assemblies which reduces the costs of lining due to saving the expenses on the flanges.

In-field repair of equipment having rotational lining in case of its occasional damage is possible.

Possessing these know-hows, we can solve many of problems of yours concerning equipment lining such as replacing enameled or rubber lined vessels e t.c.